Use of landsat thematic mapper data to identify crop types and estimate irrigated acreage, Uvalde and Medina Counties, Texas, 1991
|Author||Raymond LH and McFarlane SI|
|Description||Using the landsat thematic mapper to estimate total irrigated acreage and acre-feet of irrigation water for Uvalde and Medina Counties in 1991|
|Report Number||USGS WRIP 93-4233|
|Publisher||US Geological Survey|
|Location||Uvalde County, Medina County|
Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data were used to estimate that about 51,000 acres of crops were irrigated with water pumped from the Edwards aquifer in Uvalde and Medina Counties, Texas in 1991. Bands 2, 3, 4, and 5 from a TM image for August 10, 1991, were classified using the maximum-likelihood, unsupervised-classification procedure to identify the areas of crops irrigated in the two counties. Detailed vegetation distribution maps of two calibration sites in the study area, and boundaries of the areas probably irrigated in 1991, were used to interpret the results and to separate probable irrigated areas by county from the rest of the image.
Areas calculated for irrigated crops were 31,000 acres for Uvalde County, about 35 percent less than the area calculated using Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) data in 1989, and 20,000 acres for Medina County, about 13 percent less than in 1989, a total decrease of about 28 percent for the two counties. Quantities of water pumped from the Edwards aquifer to irrigate crops in 1991 were estimated as 65,000 acre-feet for Uvalde County and 18,000 acre-feet for Medina County, a total decrease of about 56 percent from the value calculated using crop acreages from MSS data for 1989. Differences were attributed primarily to greater precipitation in 1991 than in 1989, resulting in smaller irrigation water requirements and less supplemental irrigation in 1991. Differences between results from 1989 and 1991, and between results from Uvalde and Medina Counties in 1991, were attributed primarily to greater precipitation in 1991, particularly in Medina County.
The total number of acres of irrigated crops estimated using Landsat TM data was about 9 percent lower in Uvalde County and about 13 percent lower in Medina County than the number of acres calculated from data reported by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service (ASCS). The total quantity of water pumped from the Edwards aquifer for irrigation in the two counties in 1991, about 83,000 acre-feet, was about 5 percent greater than the quantity calculated from data reported by the ASCS.